Average energy consumption in Danang could be compared to the level of an European city
01/08/2014 08:47:02

Project "Danang Climate change mitigation for buildings" known as DaCliMB has been finished to calculate the energy consumption and inventory the GHG emission in urban sector.


According to the assessment of Asconit consultants, In Da Nang in 2010, electricity represented 50% of the final energy consumption, and the primary energy source. The residential sector was the second largest energy consumer with 24% of the total energy consumption, after the industrial sector (35%). Electricity is the main source of energy for both residential and tertiary sectors, responding for 72% of the needs in the residential and 84% in the tertiary sector. Da Nang differs from the national context, with a preponderance of electricity in the energy mix of residential and tertiary sectors and Da Nang GHG emissions amounted to 1.54 MtCO2e in 2010, including 280 ktCO2e for the residential sector and 80 ktCO2e for the tertiary sector. 

According to the household survey carried out under this project (250 households, 1,134 inhabitants):

Nearly 90% of households use gas for cooking and 32% for the production of hot water. On average, 53% of households are equipped with water heating system. 

The other energy products such as wood, coal, charcoal, biogas and petroleum products (fuel oil or diesel generator to power a generator) are marginally used. 

Nearly 100% of households are equipped with refrigerators, mobile phones and television. The average equipment rate for washing machine is 78%, 66% for computer and 41% for water pump. The equipment rate has increased considerably for all electrical appliances since 2008 (DaCRISS, DaCliMB).

Regarding thermal comfort in summer, 100% of households are equipped with fans, and only 38% with individual air conditioner. The installation of an air conditioning system is the priority investment for households in Da Nang.

Only 37% of interviewees are planning to buy a more energy efficient equipment in the future and only 60% have heard of energy efficiency label. Energy efficiency is not considered an important issue for the population. There is a significant potential to reduce energy consumption in houses. This require to strengthen information and awareness-raising regarding user behaviour (ex: turning off the lights), but also on purchasing behaviour (ex: buying energy efficient equipment). 

The survey results aggregated with EVN data have shown that on average, electricity consumption of a household is 2,701 kWh per year. It was multiplied by 2 between 2008 and 2014, with a particularly significant increase in the district of Ngu Hanh Son.

Electricity therefore represents from 50 to 75% of the final energy consumption of households, and gas from 15 to 25%. The average energy consumption is estimated at 4,255 kWh / year per household in 2013, or 32 kWh/m² in 2013. There are significant differences between the districts. Energy consumption is the highest in the districts of Thanh Khe and Hai Chau, where it is approximately 50% higher than average in Da Nang. 


Electricity and gas consumption will remain the two main source of energy used by households; it is considered that the consumption of wood, coal and oil products will remain stable from 2015 in this BAU scenario

Tertiary Buildings

The number of buildings connected to the local electrical grid was multiplied by 2 over the period 2006-2013, from 3,800 buildings in 2008 to over 8,000 in 2014. The increase is even more important for offices (X10) and hotels (X5) over this period (EVN, 2013).

Electricity consumption in the sector has been multiplied by 7 over this period, and hotels and shops alone account for nearly 70 % of the sector consumption. 

According to EVN, hotels have a total electricity consumption of 51 GWh in 2013, representing nearly 25% of electrical consumption in the tertiary sector. The average annual electrical consumption of hotels is 140,000 kWh/year in 2013. Air conditioning accounts for nearly 50% of the total energy consumption, regardless the type of hotel.

The average annual electricity consumption of shops is 20,000 kWh/year in 2013.

According to a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the electricity consumption of the tertiary buildings will continue to increase exponentially and will be about 688 GWh in 2025.

Key Issues to be addressed to improve Energy Efficiency

The structure of energy consumption in residential and tertiary sectors of Da Nang is very different from the national context, considering that Da Nang is an “energy guzzling” modern urban center, comparable to a European city center to this regard.

The extremely fast increasing growth of the city (massive urbanization) in the last 10 years led to increased comfort levels and, generally speaking, energy services (and more particularly electricity uses) for a growing proportion of the population. The ratio of holder for the main electrical appliances increased significantly in the households, and many tertiary buildings (hotels, shops) are opening every year.

The 2025 BAU scenario indicates that energy consumption in both sectors will continue to increase significantly, with an even faster trend in the tertiary sector.


Air conditioning is a key issue in Da Nang, and the technical solutions related with thermal comfort for tertiary buildings are similar to those for residential buildings. However, it will be necessary to identify more precisely in both sectors the different stakeholders and contracting authorities that might be involved in the implementation of energy efficiency programs.

The main policy measure for new buildings is the elaboration and implementation of thermal regulations, which must be accompanied by several real and effective application. Energy consumption in existing buildings should increase because of aspirations to greater comfort by the population.


For tertiary buildings, it is necessary to distinguish public buildings (administration buildings, hospitals, schools) and private buildings (shops, hotels), considering that stakeholders to be mobilized will be relatively different.


GhG Emissions

The construction may be responsible for 50-60 % of GHG emissions in the entire life cycle of a building. The challenge, in terms of reducing GHG emissions does not only concerns the performance of building systems and equipment but also the choice of construction processes with lower emissions. Indeed, possibilities of actions to reduce GHG emissions in the building sector (residential or tertiary) decrease with the advancement of the real estate program.

The following table presents the emission factors used to calculate GhG emissions related to energy consumption in residential and tertiary buildings.  





Grid electricity



LPG gas






Oilproduct (Diesel)




  Emission factors in Da Nang


Total GhG emissions related to energy consumption have been estimated at 310 ktCO2e in 2010 for residential buildings and 69 ktCO2e for tertiary buildings (World Bank, APEC). 

According to a BAU scenario, GHG emissions for the residential and tertiary sectors may triple between 2010 and 2025, and reach 1368 ktCO2e in 2025. Considerable reductions should be required in residential and tertiary sectors in order to control GHG emissions around the level of the base year 2010.


To archieve the target to reduce the GHG emission from 8-10% by 2020 compared to 2010 according to the orientation of the state Green Growth Strategy,  Danang CCCO has required Asconit consultants to propose the list of climate change mitigation priority projects for urban sectors. Those projects are for policy, institutional, capacity enhance, awareness raising, demonstation projects... to support Danang city to become an environmental city by 2020.

                                                                                                                     Mai Huong




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